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Hello… Adele. Happy birthday! (handwriting analysis)

My celebrity happy birthday handwriting analysis goes out to a British treasure, Adele. A lot of wonderful musicians that have shaped our lives have come from across the pond, Adele is no exception. Born 5/5/88 Adele Laurie Blue Adkins, her young, single mother raised her alone. Adele always knew what she wanted to be when she grew up and wrote her first hit at the age of 16. She has broken records in the music industry, specifically for women. She was the first woman in history to have three simultaneous top ten hits on the iconic Billboard top 100. Her long list of awards includes six Grammys, album of the year, artist of the year not to mention, VH1 and Time magazine’s accolades touting her as one of the most influential women in the world.

There were some things about her handwriting that surprised me, in fact, when I first found her signature on-line I thought it had to be a fake, but further research showed it was the right one. There are only a few things handwriting analysis doesn’t show and one of those things is age.  Of course, there are people who are young, young at heart and then those who are mentally impaired or lack education. These are indications of how old the writer might be, but are not solid clues for age guessing.

With Adele’s signature, she shows education and intelligence, young at heart but with an old soul. I was shocked to learn she’s only twenty-nine today. Her writing shows a tendency to serve others first, a ‘what can I do for you’ suggestion. There is a sense of calmness graced with confidence. With as big as superstar as she is, I totally expected to see her writing laced with ego-but no. She’s down to earth and real. Optimistic and (mostly) happy she’s creative, spontaneous and chatty. And she wants you to like her. (Who doesn’t, right?)

When you look at her signature, it’s almost illegible. This could be because she signs so much and has gotten a bit sloppy but it can also mean she has some privacy issues going on. I love the fact she puts a period after her signature, it’s the only real ego shown in her writing. (I am who I am, period.) She’s hard on herself and has a high ‘bar’ set within her profession and personal life, but she will never apologize for who she is (like it or lump it). Tenacious, she won’t quit (a bit like a bulldog, don’t piss her off, there’s a bit of a temper simmering just under the surface-especially if you mess with her family-mess with her all you want, but don’t even think of going after her loved ones).

There is also a nice balance between tradition and new ideas. I love this about Adele’s signature. She honors tradition yet knows she must roll with the times to stay on top. (Smart.) The other balance in her penmanship is with money. She’s generous but not. To put it another way, she must believe in what she’s donating to, it must be a passion for her or she will decline giving money or time. There’s a hint of ‘me first’ in the finance category of her handwriting.

I specifically picked signatures with hearts on them. Many female stars sign this way. Adele’s hearts are often one line (she doesn’t lift the pen).  There can be seen crosses and hooks within them telling us she’s ‘once bitten; twice shy’ when it comes to love and relationships.

Of course, I love Adele’s music, it’s amazing. Today, since I’ve peeked into her personal world with her penmanship, I’ve fallen in love with who she is. I’ve discovered a genuinely nice person who is a riot to be with, a young woman with a fantastic sense of humor, wit and passion. Happy Birthday, Adele. If there is anything left you want to do while you’re still in your twenties, you better get on it! Looking forward to the next several decades of your amazing music making!

Quotes by Adele

I don’t make music for the eyes. I make music for the ears.

I wanted to be a singer forever. But it’s not really my cup of tea. Having the whole world know who you are.

Be brave and fearless to know that even if you do make a wrong decision, you’re making it for a good reason.

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Jessica Alba’s handwriting analysis birthday blog

Happy birthday, Jessica Alba; the girl-next-door that took over Hollywood! (4/28/81) One of my favorite things about this blog is discovering personal things about the celebrities I’m analyzing. For example, Jessica Alba and I both have the middle name, Marie. We were both born on the 28th and we have one younger brother. Johny Depp is her favorite actor (mine too) and she enjoys a bit of SpongeBob Squarepants, but really, who doesn’t? Let’s check out her handwriting…

This amazing actress always knew what she wanted to be when she grew up. As a child, Jessica’s family was poor. She wore thrift store clothes and never felt she fit in. In her penmanship, you can see there is true gratitude, grit and determination. Her handwriting also indicates a bit of a rebel streak. She loves people and has genuine empathy. She’s not pretentious, what you see is what you get. One of her rules to live by may be ‘fool me once, shame on you, fool me twice, shame on me’, she has the classic forgive but don’t forget sign in her signature.

Looking at dozens of her autographs, you can see how the J has changed over the years, and maybe even day to day. Most times the top is overly big indicating she has grand ideas, and an active imagination. It’s a soft, clear J. She has learned to not depend on anyone but herself and this is also seen in the first letter of her first name. The letter J’s totem is the bear, thoughtful and calm unless you mess with her kids, then watch out! She also needs her downtime to truly serve those around her so don’t be offended if she hasn’t returned your call for a few days.

In the last name Alba, she seems to always sign like we’re taught in school, the lower-case A but bigger. This is indicative of a person who ultimately serves others. Jessica puts others first so often it doesn’t even dawn on her to put herself first, there is not a selfish bone in her body. She’s a giver, through and through. (A trait she shares with David Bowie.) A couple of the signatures I looked at, it was clear Jessica doesn’t believe how amazing she really is, her self-esteem is there but in a ‘I’m only doing my job’ kind of way. The A is the dolphin. Chatty and intelligent, with a love for people, these traits are all seen in her writing.

Optimistic and flexible, she is one to go-with-the-flow. Her work drive is old fashion and she wouldn’t dream of cheating anyone. A day’s work for a day’s pay, could be her work motto. She’ll give 100% of herself within her career and family obligations. Generous to a fault, she believes she can make a difference. I think she’s right.

Happy birthday, Jessica Alba! Cheers to many more!

Quotes from Jessica Alba

Everybody is beautiful, and there are so many different types of beauty and ideas of beauty – it really comes down to confidence.

My theory is that if you look confident you can pull off anything – even if you have no clue what you’re doing.

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Happy 91st Birthday to Queen Elizabeth (handwriting analysis)

I’ll admit, I have a little fascination when it comes to the royal family. Queen Elizabeth has been a woman to admire my entire life. Happy 91st birthday to the oldest reigning monarch as well as the longest lived. For someone who was never expected to become Queen, she’s done a royal job!

When we look at her signature, we see she has the upright (non-existent) slant that is common in Europe. The alphabet that is taught there is the Roman writing opposed to the Palmer method in the U.S. The primary difference is the slant and embellishments. If you compare the current Queen Elizabeth’s signature to her mother’s the differences are crystal-clear. The Roman writing is patterned after calligraphy and often will have additional flourish such as under or over-scores and high, tight curves. This indicates the Queen is fact over fiction. She thinks before she acts and may have a tendency to ‘sleep on it’ when facing heavy decision making. Furthermore, she is no nonsense although she has quite a sense of humor. Straight-talking, and  frank she will tell you what’s on her mind.

Her E shows tolerance for people. She has patience and open-mindedness although she is no nonsense. Her and her mother both signed a capital R after Elizabeth. Some may guess this stands for ‘royalty’ or an undisclosed family name but it’s their title, Regina. (the Latin word for Queen) This is an understandable abbreviation for someone who must sign their name multiple times daily. Speaking of frequently signing, Queen Elizabeth’s signature has been consistent throughout her reign. This tells us she is steady and reliable in her actions, there isn’t a chance she would text something off the top of her head at three a.m. Poised, confident and steadfast, the Queen is diplomatic and charismatic. Her education was unlike most people’s and consisted of royal duties and obligations opposed to a standard upbringing. Queen Elizabeth was a daddy’s girl and was close to him up to his death.

Here’s a few fun facts that have nothing to do with her writing. She loves dogs and has had thirty corgis during her tenure as Queen. She’s played Prince Charming in a play with her sister. When she was engaged to Prince Philip, she used ration coupons to buy the material for her wedding dress as there was a war going on at that time. One thing I have in common with the queen is a love for handwritten notes. Queen Elizabeth has written tens of thousands of notes and cards throughout the decades.

Happy birthday to this renowned woman!

Queen Elizabeth quotes

The upward course of a nation’s history is due in the long run to the soundness of heart of its average men and women.

Grief is the price we pay for love.

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It’s baseball season! Happy Birthday to Pete Rose.

It’s baseball season so Pete Rose is the perfect happy birthday celebrity handwriting analysis for this week. Known as “Charlie Hustle” or “The Hit King”, Pete became famous for an outstanding 4,256 hits within his career. A man familiar with the science behind handwriting analysis, Mr. Rose was banned from baseball due to a forensic document examiner testifying it was his handwriting on betting slips in 1989. Although he claims he never wagered against his team, it was argued that he was betting ten thousand dollars a game … But I’m getting ahead of myself.

Pete was born April 14, 1941 to Harry and LaVerne Rose. Harry’s nick name was ‘big Pete’ and it seemed a fitting name for his son since he had never liked his own birth name. Born the second child of four, Pete’s father pushed him in to sports by way of example. Harry loved football and Pete picked up on the drive, ambition and inclination for sports but Pete’s talent was in baseball. The family never took a summer vacation since that was the baseball season. Harry did not think it fair to the team if ‘one of their best players’ took a vacation. Pete learned right off the bat (pun intended) to hit both right and left handed and would switch depending on the pitcher. He often cited his dad for pushing him to be great in his field.

Within his autograph, you can see his grandiose ego, vanity and bad taste. There are also signs of prejudice, and a few dishonesty signs, specifically, dishonesty by omission (this is further confirmed over his tax trouble for evasion and not reporting all of his income.) Violence can also be seen in some of his handwriting, hot-headed temper and the potential to lash out. He’s an all caps printer which shows his detachment from those around him, he’s emotionally unavailable and has high privacy issues.  There are also indications that he is selfish and self-preserving. When his own daughter said he wasn’t a good father, his reply was, “Of course I am, I just bought my daughter a car.” Within relationships, money buys happiness and loyalty.

Mr. Rose was banned from baseball after he was accused of betting for the team he was coaching, a practice forbidden to key personnel. It was a handwriting expert that testified it was indeed Pete Rose’s handwriting on the smudged gambling tickets. Naturally, Mr. Rose’s attorneys attacked the credentials of the handwriting expert, but the judge upheld the testimony and it was the damning piece of evidence.

During the most recent election, Donald Trump tweeted a picture of a baseball that Pete Rose wrote “Mr. Trump, make America great again” and signed it. Naturally, this was taken as an endorsement but when asked about it, Pete stated that if he’s getting paid to sign a ball, he writes what the customer wants and there was no support towards the current president. (btw, he charges between $40 and $75 for these signatures…)

Happy birthday, Pete Rose. And best of luck.

Personal note… I must admit, this analysis really disappointed me. Pete Rose is quite a jerk and his handwriting proved it. I love baseball have respect for a man who played the game well but as a person, I lost a lot of respect just by researching his signature. See you next week.

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Literary Legend, Beverly Cleary, Happy 101st Birthday! (handwriting analysis)

Clear, clean and easy to read as her books, Beverly Cleary’s signature is straight forward and legible. If she hadn’t become an author, she has what it takes to be a school teacher (like her mother). An only child growing up on a farm in Oregon, Ms. Cleary struggled learning to read. Once she did, the library became her favorite place to be. One of the jobs that affected her career path was being a librarian. She watched as students struggled to find characters and stories they could relate to, this inspired her to write. Her books are so relate-able they have stood the tests of time, remember Ramona? Born Beverly Bunn, she married her husband, Clarence Cleary in 1940 and published under that name. They were married up to his death in 2004. She had boy/girl twins, Malcom and Marianne, who inspired some of her characters and their adventures. Many of her characters were inspired with the boys and girls she grew up with.

Beverly Cleary’s handwriting has the perfect slant, what some call the teacher slant. This is indicative of a person who can get along with just about anyone; those super shy and those exuberant extroverts. There are a few different signs that she works well alone and can adapt whether she’s a wall flower or center stage. (Although, she genuinely loves people.) Her signature shows she forgives and forgets. This may have caused her to be taken advantage of over the years by those that prey on forgiving souls. I was able to find several samples of her writing as well as her signature. They are all consistent and haven’t changed much over the decades. She may be stuck in her glory days and comfortable the way things were. Deep thinking and analytical, Beverly’s writing shows she’s also ‘a lover not a fighter’. The only confrontation indications in her writing are a desire for an intellectual debate. What you see is what you get with Ms. Cleary, there is no BS or flamboyance, like her writing style.

Currently she’s living in a retirement home in California where she’s been a long-time resident. Happy 101st Birthday to this literary legend! (April 12, 1916)

Beverly Clearly quotes

If you don’t see the book on the shelf you want to read, write it.

I wanted to be a ballerina when I grew up. I changed my mind.

Problem solving, and I don’t mean algebra, seems to be my life’s work. Maybe it’s everyone’s life work.

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Happy Birthday Christopher Walken (celebrity handwriting analysis)

Is this man really as eccentric as the characters he plays on the big screen? When we take a look at Christopher Walken‘s handwriting, we see some of those ‘just a little off’ characteristics in his signature.

Born Ronald Walken, Christopher (Chris to his friends) changed his name at the suggestion of Monique van Vooren, a performer in which he was a backup dancer. Walken had been performing since he was only three years old influenced by his mother’s dream of stardom. He enjoyed the stage and briefly was a lion tamer in a circus while he was still a teenager. He found a niche for acting even though his official training is dance. Mr. Walken’s distinct hair style was provoked by his love and admiration for Elvis Presley. It has become one of his most recognizable physical traits.

Looking for credible sources of his handwriting I noticed a variety of penmanship for this one man. There are many differences with his signatures/writing which is common for most people. Handwriting is based on the emotions and going on’s in the moment you write. Body language on paper. Throughout the dozen or so signatures I looked at, there are enough common traits to find the real Christopher Walken’s autographs immediately.

The W, although it changes, the entry and exit strokes are consistent as well as the right side embellishment. When his whole name is written out, there are rebellious signs that show up in the letter R as well as his quick wit and creativity. Although cast in darker roles, he prefers the more humorous parts. His handwriting shows a wide sense of humor, in other words, he can find humor in a wide variety of things… Things other people may not find funny.

Some of his writing could be compared to a doctors, illegible and fast. This indicates his intelligence plus the fact he’s already three moves ahead of you.

One trait consistent in his writing are the hooks. These are indications of those individuals that may have a temper, and also have a hard time letting go of hurt feelings (grudges). He also has a wall built in the letter that relates to women indicating deep hurt from a female in his life as well as many privacy traits. (You know how those Hollywood guys are…)  When you look at his penmanship over the years, generosity is something that has crept into his writing with age, and most likely, success.

This week’s celebrity birthday handwriting analysis could use a little more cowbell!
Happy Birthday, Christopher Walken! Here’s to many more!

Quotes by Christopher Walken

My hair was famous before I was.

There probably aren’t a lot of actors my age who tap dance.

Movies are terrifically optimistic enterprises.

Emotional power is maybe the most valuable thing an actor can have.

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Happy Birthday Harry Houdini Handwriting Analysis

Born Ehrich Weisz, Harry Houdini changed his name after he moved to America from Hungary and became a professional magician. Being a trapeze artist at the age of nine, was his first stage performance and gave him the bug to be in the limelight. He tried acting but found a love for optical illusions and escape artist tricks. He picked his name after a French magician, Jean Eugene Robert Houdin after reading the man’s biography. Young Ehrich believed if he added an i to the end of the famous man’s name it indicated ‘like’ and so he thought Houdini meant ‘like Houdin’.

Harry Houdini’s handwriting is a wonderful blend of the calligraphy of the day and the then new Palmer method of writing that was on the scene in the late 1800’s. Connected and legible, he loved people and wanted to be the center of attention. He loved his mother and was very close to her; overall, he was a people pleaser (which is present in his penmanship). His writing shows his level of deep feelings and need for things to make sense. An active member of Scientific American, he was quick to debunk mediums and others claiming to have psychic gifts offering them money if they could prove their talents. None could. Him and his wife had an agreement that if there was an afterlife, Harry would contact her through those channels. After ten years of séances, she conceded that there was no life after death communications.

A bit of a rebel, he was analytical and witty, progressive and quick thinking. A nice balance between traditional practices and more liberal lines of thought are present in the way his s’s change in his penmanship. The H’s in his writing show his sense of humor and confidence. Unlike his magical performances, with his personality, what you see is what you get. He may have worn his heart on his sleeve and didn’t hold back with his expressions and opinions. There was also a curiosity about death that appears in many of his handwriting samples.

The dishonesty that appears in his writing is typical of those who tell people what they want to hear. This is perfect for his career in illusions. He was also known to have told many people he was born in America even though he was an immigrant. The wealth he acquired allowed him to live a decadent life, traveling, buying planes and providing for his wife.

Blazing a trail for greats such as David Copperfield, David Blaine, Criss Angel, Teller and many more, we thank you, Harry Houdini for your visions and daring illusions. Happy Birthday!

Quotes by Harry Houdini

My brain is the key that sets me free.

Keep up your enthusiasm! There is nothing more contagious than exuberant enthusiasm.

Never try and fool children, they expect nothing and therefore see everything.

The greatest escape I ever made was when I left Appleton, Wisconsin.

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Happy Birthday Nat King Cole (Handwriting Analysis)

Nat King Cole was a merry old soul and a merry old soul was he….

This week’s handwriting analysis birthday shout shows that Mr. Cole was ahead of his time. He was optimist, goal-driven, funny and friendly. Born in Montgomery, Alabama in 1919 Nathaniel Adams Cole’s family moved to Illinois. He grew up in Chicago and like many of the young people of his time, was influenced by church music. The first instrument he learned to play was the organ. That eventually turned to piano and he developed his own unique style. As a young adult, he formed a jazz trio called King Cole after the famous nursery rhyme. Their band was unique in the fact it didn’t have a drummer.

Nat’s soft, baritone voice and amazing stage presence rocketed them into recognition. During that time, it was difficult, if not impossible, for a black band to become mainstream. Nat King Cole (King seemed to stick) was the first black person to host their own variety show on NBC in the mid-fifties. It only aired one season as they were unable to find sponsors. Corporate America at that time could not be affiliated with a negro-band. This did not stop Mr. Cole from becoming a superstar. He’s well known for the tune Unforgettable and (Get your kicks on) Route 66. Sadly, his life was cut short by lung cancer and he died in his prime in 1965.

When we look at his signature, we can see the optimistic attitude and his natural sense of humor. He was one to see the glass half-full even when circumstances were dire and he was victim to racial discrimination. One thing consistent in his signature is the double loops in his o. This is indicative of someone who may lie to get his way. In Nat Cole’s case, being black in an all-white world, he may have learned to adapt to those around him by telling them what they wanted to hear opposed to what was really on his mind or in his heart.

Nat King Cole had a great work drive and knew what he needed to do to get where he wanted to go. Driven, he was not one to slow down or wait. His handwriting shows a bit of a temper when crossed, and he was not one to let things go, if you did him wrong, he was not one to forgive easily.

Happy 98th birthday, Mr. Cole. We applaud your ambition and work-ethic. You paved the way for many astounding black performers as well as opened doors (and eyes) to the possibility that ALL men are created equal.

Quotes

If you smile through your fear and sorrow, smile and maybe tomorrow you’ll see the sun come shining through for you.

It’s not the people in the south who create racial problems – it’s the people who are governing.

Madison Avenue is afraid of the dark. (When his variety show was cancelled due to no sponsorship.)

Neither do I. And if I see anybody undesirable coming in here, I’ll be the first to complain. (In response to the Home Owners Association in a Los Angeles all-white neighborhood when he was told they didn’t want any ‘undesirables’ moving in.)

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Carrie Underwood’s Handwriting Analysis Birthday Shoutout

Happy 34th birthday Carrie Underwood (Fisher)!

Ever since I watched the movie, God Bless America, I’ve sworn off reality shows. However, in 2005, I was swept up in the fourth season of American Idol like the rest of the country. Carrie Underwood was the obvious choice and I cried along with her when she was announced the winner. It’s been lovely to watch this all-American girl rise to become an iconic figure in the Country Western music world. Watching her succeed and be successful, rise to super-stardom, fall in love and become a mother gives us all the sensation dreams do come true. She’s a class act with humble roots who loves animals and has a true-to-herself style. (Author to author…) Check out her book-folio, Carrie Underwood, Some Hearts. (Reader to reader…) She loves Stephen King!

When we look at her autograph, we can see the changes money and fame did to this wonderful woman as well as the traditional background she was raised with. The C is the letter of femininity, hers has a sharp edge to it. Perhaps she’s been burned by a woman or has ‘walls’ built around her in regards to girlfriends or female co-workers. This has not changed over the years. It’s been in her personality since before fame. She’s optimist and in general, happy.

The animal that coordinates with the letter C is the White Buffalo. Carrie’s C is all it imbues, quiet confidence, a-subtle-storm-not-to-be-messed-with plus pride of her heritage and family. The rest of her first name is basically a squiggle and a loop. The signature of her first name shows she’s private (and was before she became famous), has a great compassion for others and the ability to listen. She forgives but doesn’t forget, fool me once, shame on you, fool me twice, shame on me.

The Underwood part of her autograph shows she’s determined, may worry what others think of her, and is highly protective of her family, (a trait in common with Michael Jackson) I love the way she is resolute in what she wants, for example, being vegan and Christian.  Regardless of her religion and eating habits, she remains open-minded and is equally ready to teach as to become the student. Traditional and polite, her writing shows manners and respect. My guess is, she may have been a border-line introvert before she took the spotlight. Money has changed her core values very little. Since she is naturally caring, she views her wealth as a tool to make life better for her and those she loves.

Cheers Mrs. Underwood-Fisher! Enjoy your special day with family and everything that makes your heart sing!

Quotes

Sometimes that mountain you’ve been climbing is just a grain of sand, and what you’ve been up there searching for forever, is in your hands. When you figure out love is all that matters after all it sure makes everything else seem so small.

I am grateful for every scar, some pages turned, some bridges burned, but there were lessons learned.

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Innovative and ahead of his time, A. G. Bell (handwriting analysis)

Happy birthday Alexander Graham Bell, known as Aleck to his family and A.G. Bell to his business associates. Born in Scotland, this innovative scientist moved to Canada and eventually settled in Massachusetts when he married a deaf student of his and became a naturalized citizen of the U.S.  Most likely, you’re reading this from your cell phone without giving the evolution of the device much thought. The history of the phone has the makings of a five-star dramatic story; competition, court battles, successes and failures.

Mr. Bell’s mother gradually lost her hearing when he was an adolescence. He became obsessed with continuing to be able to communicate with her and began to study acoustics and the transmission of sound waves. This lead to the patent of the first phone system. There was a race to the U.S. Patent office between A.G Bell and his competitor, Elisha Gray who filed for a similar patent the very same day.

When we look at Alexander Graham Bell’s handwriting we can see the competitive drive he had, the intelligence and the will to succeed. Like the phone, handwriting has evolved over the years to accommodate the times. Back then, cursive writing specifically, was used for cognitive and psychological development (reading, writing and arithmetic) and was a sign of education and intellect.

Alexander Graham Bell’s writing reveals he did indeed have intelligence, vision, drive and compassion for his fellow human beings. He was empathetic and compassionate and genuinely liked people. His penmanship was common for that era, with sweeping cursive and a calligraphy comparison.

Like the phone, there is an evolution of writing too. The capital letter ‘A’ for example. Alexander Bell wrote his as we were all taught in school, big and round like the lower case ‘a’ but larger (being dubbed the Easter egg A). This indicates a person who wants to serve others. It’s been called ‘the housewife A’ as people who write their initials this way are often more concerned with the comforts of others over themselves. In recent years, as the general public has grown more selfish and egotistical, and printing has replaced cursive, we are seeing more and more star shaped A’s. Keep in mind, there is no right or wrong way to write a letter, but varying degrees of the nature it imbues. Alexander was definitely a person who lived to serve others with his inventions and studies.

His writing also shows the long and heavy crosses above his t’s indicating a powerful work drive and desire for status. Alexander Bell’s writing shows a tendency for lively debates (or arguments, lol), the ability to make a decision without consulting others, acumen and an inclination towards tradition and routine. He was an analytical thinker and may have had a propensity to work alone.

Thank goodness for visionaries. “Necessity is the mother of invention” could have been Alexander Graham Bell’s motto as if it weren’t for his hearing-impaired parents we may never have the handheld devices we rely so heavily on. His genius contributions also played a part in the development of the photophone, solar technology, metal detector, hydrofoils, eugenics and aeronautics.  Happy Birthday to this iconic man!

Great Quotes from Alexander Graham Bell

The day will come when the man at the telephone will be able to see the distant person to whom he is speaking. (1906)

To ask the value of speech is like asking the value of life.

The inventor is a man who looks around upon the world and is not contented with things as they are. He wants to improve whatever he sees, he wants to benefit the world; he is haunted by an idea. The spirit of invention possesses him, seeking materialization.

Every town or city has a vast expanse of roof exposed to the sun. There is no reason why we should not use the roofs of our houses to install solar apparatus to catch and store the heat received from the sun.

Coal and oil are… strictly limited in quantity. We can take coal out of a mine but we can never put it back. (1917)

Self-education is a lifelong affair.